According to the 1885 census, 84.90% (316,208 people) of the Duchy's inhabitants held citizenship of Brunswick, while 54,738 people (14.70%) were citizens of other German states. The Duchy's highest peak was the Wurmberg at 971 metres (3,186 ft). In 1918, with the abolition of the monarchy, all nobles titles were equally abolished. All English Français. George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, is considered the first member of the House of Hanover.When the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg was divided in 1635, George inherited the principalities of Calenberg and Göttingen, and in 1636 he moved his residence to Hanover.His son, Duke Ernest Augustus, was elevated to prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire in 1692. His possessions were enlarged in 1706 when the hereditary lands of the Calenberg branch of the Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg merged with the lands of the Lüneburg-Celle branch to form the state of Hanover. At the Imperial Diet of 1235 in Mainz, as part of the reconciliation between the Hohenstaufen and Welf families, Henry's grandson, Otto the Child, transferred his estates to Emperor Frederick II and was enfeoffed in return with the newly created Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, which was formed from the estates transferred to the Emperor as well as other large areas of the imperial fisc. They offer vaccine recommendations and the latest news on outbreaks and other health risks as well as factsheets that contain useful information for staying healthy during your travel. As he left no descendants, the land passed to his brother, Augustus. In 1569 Henry founded the duchy of. After the fall of Napoleon, George III regained his lands plus lands from Prussia as King of Hanover, whilst giving up some other smaller scattered territories. HSH Duke Christian of Brunswick and Lüneburg (Since 1679:) HSH Prince Christian of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg * Schloß Iburg, Hanover, September 29th n.s., 1671 † (drowned in action) in the River Danube near Ulm, July 31st, 1703; HSH Duke Ernst August of Brunswick and Lüneburg The estates of the different dynastic lines could be inherited by a side line when a particular family died out. Brunswick is a small, landlocked country in the North Germany region. Coincidentally, in 1701 the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg found himself in the line of succession for the British crown, later confirmed in 1707 by the Act of Union, which he subsequently inherited, thereby creating a personal union of the two crowns on 20 October 1714. As a result, Prussia was unwilling to let George V of Hanover or his son, Ernest Augustus, succeed to Brunswick. Phone: 202-955-0200. The Hanoverians never ruled Brunswick while they held the British throne, as the city was part of neighbouring Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. History Dukes and Electors of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Proofread by Angela Rubenstein, February 1997. Anna married Barnim Xi, Duke of Pomerania on February 2 1525, at age 22. Sybille of Brunswick-Lüneburg: William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg 3 June 1584 23 November 1617 19 January 1598 husband's death: 5 August 1652 Dorothea of Anhalt-Zerbst: Rudolph, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst 25 September 1607 26 October 1623 11 August 1634 husband inherits Wolfenbüttel: 26 September 1634 Augustus II The territory of Wolfenbüttel was recognized as a sovereign state by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. His rule was marked by several feuds, financed by pledges (Verpfändungen), involving border and property disputes with his neighbours. After his death,according to the treaty, the duchy was returned to the Welfs. When the imperial ban was placed on Henry the Lion in 1180, he lost his titles as Duke of Saxony and Duke of Bavaria. The name Wolfenbüttel was given to this principality. They were made Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1235. When Charles' brother William VIII arrived in Brunswick on 10 September, he was received joyfully by the people. The northern part was located on the border between the North German Plain and the Central Uplands of Germany. Charles William Ferdinand of Brunswick, German Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, (born Oct. 9, 1735, Wolfenbüttel, Lower Saxony [Germany]—died Nov. 10, 1806, Ottensen, near Hamburg), duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Wolfenbüttel, Prussian field marshal, and an enlightened ruler. The land passed to his brothers. PIC is the international leader in the provision of continuous genetic improvement in pig breeding stock and in world class technical support to the global pork supply chain. William died without descendants, and Albert reunited his land with his brother's. In 1269 divided the land with him, and became Prince of Brunswick. Abdicated to his sons in 1491. The princes are numbered by the year of their succession. Joined Wolfenbüttel to his domains in 1485, when he imprisoned his brother. Christian the Elder, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg by Robert Van Voerst, Daniel Mytems ca. Otto abdicated in 1527 and founded his own estate, the, Regent on behalf of her son, Eric. In 1692 this country was raised to the dignity of the ninth electorate, as Hanover (or Bruswick-Lüneburg). His lands passed to collateral lines of the Lüneburg Welfs. The seats of power moved in the meantime from Brunswick and Lüneburg to Celle and Wolfenbüttel as the towns asserted their independence. The title "Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg" (German: Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg) was held, from 1235 on, by various members of the Welf (Guelph) family who ruled several small territories in northwest Germany. frederick william, duke of brunswick-wolfenbüttel (9 october 1771 – 16 june 1815) was a german prince and duke of brunswick-lüneburg and oels - duke of brunswick lüneburg stock illustrations charles, duke of brunswick-lüneburg (1735-1806), wood engraving, published in 1893 - duke of brunswick lüneburg stock illustrations The last mentioned retained the position of elector even after the Holy Roman Empire was abolished by its last emperor in 1806. Brunswick is a small, landlocked country in the North Germany region. Found in the collection of Bomann Museum Celle. 25 hotéis em LüneburgLüneburg The land passed to his brother, Frederick IV. Brunswick Manifesto, Charles Wilhelm Ferdinand, Citizen Louis Capet, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, French Monarchy, French Revolution, Guillotine, King Louis XVI of France, National Convention While the revolutionary government frantically raised fresh troops and reorganised its armies, a Prussian-Austrian army under Charles Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick assembled at Coblenz on the Rhine. When his brother, Christian Louis died childless in 1665, George William inherited Luneburg. George I was followed by his son George II and great-grandson George III. While the Kingdom of Hanover was annexed by Prussia in 1866, the Duchy of Brunswick remained sovereign and independent. History Edit. In 1428 they exchanged, with their uncle Bernard I, Lüneburg for Wolfenbüttel. Ferdinand Albert was the third son of Augustus the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. However, his death without descendants allowed his cousins (sons of Albert) to reunite Grubenhagen. It joined first the North German Confederation and in 1871 the German Empire. Hanover being the Junior branch, and Wolfenbüttel the Elder. 26,504 (5.5%) people were Catholic, 4720 (0.97%) adhered to Reformed churches. It’s a good idea for UK citizens to check with NaTHNaC (National Travel Health Network and Centre) at least 2 months before their trip to Brunswick and Lüneburg.. Following his death, his three sons jointly ruled the Duchy. In 1432 founded the Principality of Calenberg, a split-off from Lüneburg, and left the remaining Wolfenbüttel to his brother Henry IV. www.osullivanagenices.com In 1269 divided the land with him, and became Prince of Luneburg. The land passed to his brother Wolfgang. This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 22:04. The duchy was located in … When the main line of descent became extinct in 1884, the German Emperor withheld the rightful heir, the Crown Prince of Hanover, from taking control, instead installing a regent. This family acquired the inheritance of the Guelph family by marriage — around the year 1000 — of Azzo II with Kunigunde of Altdorf, daughter of Welf II. The Duchy of Brunswick was almost entirely surrounded by the Prussian Provinces of Hanover and Saxony, in the south-east it also bordered the Duchy of Anhalt and in the west the Principality of Waldeck-Pyrmont and the Prussian Province of Westphalia. As a latter day development, what became the Electorate of Hanover was initially called the Elector of Brunswick-Lunenberg when the Holy Roman Emperor appointed Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lunenberg an Elector in 1696 (two years before his death) in a somewhat controversial move to increase the number of Protestant electors—thereby offending the entrenched interests of the extant prince-electors who would no longer be so few. ), This article is about the German states ruled by the various Dukes of Brunswick and Lüneburg. His protests included repudiations of the new entities and titles created by the Council of Vienna, most of which were published in the Gazette on an annual basis. In 1910, the Duchy of Brunswick had a population of 494,339 people. Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users. [10] In the 1870s, the Duchy of Brunswick State Railway merged with the Royal Prussian State Railways. the Electorate of Hanover, circa 1789. Rev. The House of Brunswick originated from the Italian House of Este. content language. to Augustus, son of Henry of Dannenberg. In 1634, as a result of inheritance distributions, it went to the House of Lüneburg, before becoming an independent principality again in 1635, when it was given to George, younger brother of Prince Ernest II of Lüneburg, who chose Hanover as his Residenz. You will be refunded fully including the shipping charges*** ): This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 23:03. His grandsons, Frederick, Bernard and Henry, secured Lüneburg in 1388, but in 1428 Bernard, the only survivor of the three, was forced to make a division of the duchy, by which he received Lüneburg, while his nephews, William and Henry, obtained Brunswick, which in 1432 they divided into Calenberg and Wolfenbüttel. If Ernest Augustus–who had been created the Duke of Cumberland in the British peerage–were unable to succeed, the council would also be empowered to appoint a regent. The biggest and most populous of those was the area surrounding the cities of Braunschweig, Wolfenbüttel and Helmstedt as well as the Elm, which extended from the river Aller in the north to the Harz mountains in the south. In the wake of his death, Elector Wenceslas appointed Bernard, his brother-in-law, as co-regent involved him in the government. Later accounts by medieval writers that the two golden lions of Brunswick were granted to Henry by the English king, his father-in-law, are deemed fictional by modern historians. "Le Duc de Brunswick: Sa vie et ses moeurs. The title "Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg" (German: Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg) was held, from 1235 on, by various members of the Welf (Guelph) family who ruled several small territories in northwest Germany.These holdings did not have all of the formal characteristics of a modern unitary state, being neither compact nor indivisible. Anna of Brunswick-Lüneburg was born on December 6 1502, in Celle, to Henry The Middle, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Margaret of Saxony, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg. While the revolutionary government frantically raised fresh troops and reorganised its armies, a Prussian-Austrian army under Charles Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick assembled at Coblenz on the Rhine. After the latter's death William took his lands. The Congress of Vienna of 1815 turned it into an independent state under the name Duchy of Brunswick. [16] The blue lion of Lüneburg was adopted by John I of Lüneburg, who based his coat of arms on the coat of arms of Denmark to emphasise his kinship with the Danish kings. Sons of Otto II, ruled jointly. After the death of Duke George William of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1705, King George I inherited the state of Lüneburg, being both the benefactor of Georges William's 1658 renunciation in favour of his younger brother Ernest Augustus and the husband of the Duke's morganatic daughter, Sophie Dorothea, later known as the "Princess of Ahlden". [22] The state flag introduced in 1912 was blue over yellow, with a crowned shield with the white horse on a red background in the center. Shared rule with his brother Albert. Proofread and pages added by Jonathan Perry, March 2001. The white steed was said to be the emblem of the eighth century Saxon duke Widukind, who according to legend rode a black horse before his baptism and a white horse afterwards. In 1643 he moved into the Residence at, As he left no descendants, the land passed to a nephew, Christian Louis, son of Frederick's brother. In 1269 the duchy was divided, Albert receiving the southern part of the state around Brunswick and John the northern territories in the area of Lüneburg. John had 4 siblings: Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg , Ernest Augustus Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg , George William Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Christian Louis Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg . George I of Great Britain. The very temporary Kingdom of Hanover and immediately disputed new Duchy was deemed illegally formed as not allowed to be done by the Junior branch (Hanover's Regency) while the Chief prince Charles II was awaiting to come of age in 1821. In 1648 inherited the Principality of Lüneburg from his uncle Frederick IV, he gave Calenberg to his younger brother George William, and instead ruled the larger territory of Lüneburg. In 1571 the Amt of Calvörde became an exclave of the Duchy. It was established as the successor state of the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by … After being split in the course of the years into smaller and smaller principalities it Grubenhagen finally returned in 1596 to Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. The various parts of the duchy were further divided and re-united over the centuries, all of them being ruled by the Welf or Guelph dynasty, who maintained close relations with one another—not infrequently by marrying cousins—a practice far more common than is the case today, even among the peasantry of the Holy Roman Empire, for the salic inheritance laws in effect, encouraged the practice of retaining control of lands and benefits. These acts were officially declared as an English invasion and usurpation in the edict of Charles II of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel on May 10, 1827. The Duke of Cumberland then proclaimed himself Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick. Robinson, ed., Readings in European History 2 vols. Imprisoned by his brother William, who took his place. countries. Mail delivery in your country may be slow. Charles made several desperate attempts, unsuccessfully, to depose him. A work from the collections of the de Young and Legion of … The unifying element of all these territories was that they were ruled by male-line descendants of Duke Otto I (ruled 1235-1252). The title "Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg" (German: Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg) was held, from 1235 on, by various members of the Welf family who ruled several small territories in northwest Germany.These holdings did not have all of the formal characteristics of a state, being neither compact nor indivisible. The county was formed in 1764 from parts of Bladen County and New Hanover County.It was named for the colonial port of Brunswick Town (now in ruins) which was itself named for Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg; at the time held by the British kings of the House of Hanover.. Law and government Edit. Accordingly, he was allowed to ascend the throne of the Duchy in November 1913. The use of the lion as a heraldic animal in the House of Guelph goes back to Henry the Lion in the 12th century at least. Cello Solar is an associate company of one of the UK’s leading LED TV brands,Cello Electronics. Nicknamed "The Black Duke", he was a military officer who led the Black Brunswickers against Napoleonic domination in Germany. His death without descendants precipitated the. In 1546 the house of Brunswick-Lüneburg divided into the branches of Lüneburg (principality of Hanover) and Wolfenbüttel (the duchy of Brunswick). In truth, the use of the horse as a symbol for Saxony only goes back to the 14th century, when the House of Guelph, after the ducal title of Saxony had fallen to the House of Ascania, adopted the fictional "ancient" symbol to represent themselves as the true descendants of the old Saxon dukes. The Latin inscriptions read IMMOTA FIDES ("unswerving faithfulness") and NEC ASPERA TERRENT ("they are not afraid of difficulties"). Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed ), memorial page for Amalia Wilhelmina of Brunswick-Lüneburg (21 Apr 1673–10 Apr 1742), Find a Grave Memorial no. Brother of Christian Louis and George William. (Redirected from Prince of Lüneburg) The Principality of Lüneburg (later also referred to as Celle) was a territorial division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg within the Holy Roman Empire, immediately subordinate to the emperor. Took the entire government of the duchy after the death of his nephew, the natural heir. All held the title Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.George died in 1641 and was succeeded by: Christian Louis, 1st son of Duke George, Prince of Calenberg (1641–1648) and Prince of Lüneburg (1648–1665).He relinquished Calenburg when he became Prince of Lüneburg. The climate is mild in the north, but in the hilly country raw and cold in winter, and in autumn and spring damp. For further information on the governments of Brunswick from 1918 on, see Free State of Brunswick. The districts were further subdivided into cities or towns (Städte) and more rural townships (Ämter). The Duchy remained independent and joined first the North German Confederation and in 1871 the German Empire. After a little over a decade, the matter of the disputed electorate was settled upon the heir, and the new Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (acceded as duke on 23 January 1698), George I Louis was able to style himself the Elector of Brunswick and Lüneburg from 1708. The major rivers that ran through Brunswick were the Weser, Aller, Leine, Oker, Bode and Innerste. In 1714 was chosen for. France, the UK and the USA co-signed treaties that would have ousted Hanover and placed them in the hands of Charles II, had they followed through. When the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg was divided in 1635, George inherited the Principality of Calenberg and moved his residence to Hanover. Not to be confused with Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. It was thought that this faction would never be added ever since Cody's announcement that he had stopped developing the game, however, the faction ended up being included in the Brunswick Update. [17] The dukes of Brunswick later added the blue lion to their arms as well, to show their own claim to the territory of Lüneburg. Youngest son of George. Abdicated to his son in 1641. Again important possessions were gained in (Lower) Saxony by the marriage of Henry the Black to Wulfhilde of Saxony (d 1126), daughter of the last member of the House of Billung, who had been Dukes of Saxony for five generations. Their son, Henry the Proud was the son-in-law and heir of Emperor Lothair of Supplinburg and became also duke of Saxony on Lothair's death. The county was formed in 1764 from parts of Bladen County and New Hanover County. Anúncios relacionados a: Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. He was the last Catholic of his family. After the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, the Brunswick-Lüneburg territories became the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick. 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