Their tribal jurisdictional area includes parts of Kay and Noble counties. References to the Ponca historical records include the variations la Pong, Panka and Punka. Buffalo Bull – head chief (also known as Little Bear. Grant agreed to the move if the Ponca were willing. Cession 628. This treaty also stated that only “American Citizens” were to be allowed to reside among the tribe as traders, as was the custom at that time, and the tribe agreed to delegate the punishment of offenders to the United States Government, giving American traders an advantage over French and Spanish traders in the area. 5. I am the great granddaughter of Lucy and Garland Kent, Sr., daughter of Curtis and Francis Primeaux and sister of Lexia and Alec Kent. Ponca City Public Schools . Involvement in this warfare continued to reduce the population of the Ponca. On behalf of the Ponca Business Committee and Ponca Tribe, we send our condolences to the Powell, Thomas, Leclair, and Kemble families. Editor’s Note: This article is part of the multi-part series “Exiled to Indian Country” about the exile of Native Americans. 3.1K likes. Membership in the tribe requires a 1/8 minimum blood quantum, according to rules developed by the tribe. The information furnished to Fletcher by the Office of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs showed the Wa-in-xu-de or “Gray Blanket” village was said to have a population of 377 persons, the Hu-bthon or “Fish Smell” village had 144 persons, and the “Point” village had 248 persons. Later it is believed, the Ponca returned to build a village with the Omaha and the Iowa at the mouth of the White River. 211-213). when they arrived at the Mississippi River the group was separated when trying to cross. By 1865, the last treaty signed with the Ponca, ceded an additional 30,000 acres of Ponca land to the U.S. Government, reducing the Ponca Reservation near Niobrara Nebraska, in what is now Knox and Boyd counties, to a mere 96,000 acres. This policy effected some 109 tribes and bands including 13,263 Indian people and 1,365,801 acres of trust land. However, attacks on the Omaha and Iowa villages by the Dakotas forced both the Omaha and the Iowa to leave the “bad village” site and migrate further south along the Missouri River. They were quartered in tipis they had brought with them, as no other provisions had been made by the government for their accommodation. Of the 3,787 enrolled tribal members, 3000 live within the state of Oklahoma. § 2701 et seq., requiring the state of Oklahoma and Oklahoma's governor to negotiate a compact which would permit the tribe to operate a Class III gaming facility on the reservation. Membership to the tribe requires a 1/8 minimum blood quantum. The full-bloods formed a tipi village, while … The Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma is headquartered at White Eagle, near Ponca City, Oklahoma. [1] Current administration Because the Ponca were not to leave their reservation without permission, Standing Bear and his small group of followers were labeled as a renegade band. It was in this same area that Omaha and Ponca oral history say that the Omaha, Ponca and Iowa first encountered the Marinara, who at that time occupied territory in Northeastern Nebraska. both Omaha and Ponca legends say they were living in a village near a lake when the sacred cedar pole was found. Established -- 15 August 1876 Agency (BIA) -- Ponca Agency Principal tribes -- Ponca Population --Contents. It is believed that it was here, prior to 1673, that the Omaha’s sacred cedar pole was cut, an important religious object, and afterward the Omaha assigned each clan and sub-clan its particular customs and duties (Dorsey, 1884, pp. At the direction of Brigham Young, who stayed with the main group of Mormons in the Council Bluffs/Omaha area, this advance party traveled along the north side of the Platte River to a deserted Pawnee village on the Loup River near present day Genoa, Nebraska (Tibbitts, 2003, p. 1). Throughout the 1700s the Ponca were referenced in various maps and literature as living between Ponca Creek and the Niobrara River in North-central Nebraska. Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma Tribal Historic Preservation Office; Keeping tribal members up to date on the land office happenings for the Ponca Tribal Land Office. These figures total 769, which differs from Fletcher's statement, “the total population of the tribe at that time was 733.” Fletcher further states that “there were eight chiefs, each of whom had his band,” and she gives a breakdown of the population among each as follows: According to Alice Fletcher in The Omaha Tribe (Fletcher & Laflesche, 1911, p. 51) by November 1874, the total population of the Ponca was counted as 733 persons, divided into three villages along the Niobrara River. Picture amber fields of wheat and pastureland dotted with oil derricks pumping black gold, as well as wind turbines capturing the Oklahoma wind. The Ponca were divided into two hunting groups, those from the Gray Blanket village and those from the Fish Smell village. Kathleen Powell June 27, 1948 - January 8, 2021. FIRST MI. It was not until 9 July 1877 that the party passed through Baxter Springs in Southeastern Kansas and crossed the line into the Indian Territory on the lands of the Quapaw Tribe. Of the 30 Ponca, only 12 returned alive. Located on the North side of the settlement of White Eagle, Ponca Indian Reservation, Kay County, Oklahoma. Main article: Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma After the 1877 forced relocation onto the Quapaw Reservation in Indian Territory, the tribe moved west to their own lands along the Arkansas and Salt Fork Rivers. Buffalo Chip – a chief of the 2nd rank (after Black Warrior dies in August 1846). The Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, also known as the Ponca Nation, is one of two federally recognized tribes of Ponca people. Cemetery on left side. The Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, also known as the Ponca Nation, is one of two federally recognized tribes of Ponca people.The other is the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska.Traditionally, peoples of both tribes have spoken the Omaha-Ponca language, part of the Siouan language family.. The Ponca chiefs refused to select any of the sites and after informing the government agent of their decision, requested to be allowed to return home to Niobrara, Nebraska. (Duncan, 1997, p. 59) the Ponca then made first contact with French traders in 1794. In 1876, the U.S. Government formulated a policy to consolidate as many tribes as possible in the Indian Territory of Oklahoma. Beginning in 1856, although the Ponca tried to hunt in the spring and the fall in the traditional way, they were frequently turned away by Teton Lakota war parties. 36-39) by 1835, a cholera epidemic killed an estimated 10% of the Ponca Tribe's population, further reducing their number to approximately 700 persons (Howard, 1965, p. 24). 08/25/2018 . By 20 October 1880, when agent A. R.  Satterwhite filed a report for the Ponca Agency in Indian Territory, the population of the Ponca in Oklahoma was now only 530 under the leadership of the following men: White EagleBlack CrowRush Into BattleThe ChiefBig BullBig SoldierChild Chief. Two Bulls – son of Buffalo Bull (he becomes head chief when his father dies in September 1846. When Bear Shield, the eldest 12 year old son of Chief Standing Bear died in 1878, the Chief was unwilling to bury him in this strange country. Formal relations between the Ponca and the United States did not begin however, until 1817. This page was last edited on 19 August 2017, at 19:57. Welcome to the Ponca Tribe Archives of the state of Oklahoma! James O. Dorsey, an unusual large scale conflict took place between the Ponca and their old enemies the Pawnee. The Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma is governed by an elected business committee and tribal chairperson and vice-chairperson. The chiefs were then forced to make the journey home in the middle of winter, without money, food or an interpreter. The more powerful Sioux, also known as the Lakota, encroached on their land base. This is the site of its former reservation and land allotted to 73 individual tribal members in 1891. Discouraged, homesick and hopeless, the Ponca now numbering 681, found themselves on the lands of strangers, in the middle of a hot summer, with no crops nor prospects for any (Howard, 1965, p. 35). The long march took a heavy toll on the tribe, over half of whom were women and children. Welcome to the sovereign and self-governing lands of The Ponca Tribe of Indians Of Oklahoma. However, the larger tribe of Pawnee frequently made war on the Ponca when their northern allies were not around. Then a grand council was established to reach an agreement on the terms of the peace, and rules of war and hunting. This document titled, “Constitution and Bylaws of the Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma” was registered with the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs. However, Gen. Crook caught up with Standing Bear and his Ponca followers, took them into custody without incident, and began escorting them back to Indian Territory. Smallpox and other introduced Eurasian diseases took a heavy toll of the tribe repeatedly in the 18th and 19th centuries, as they had no immunity to the new diseases. To commemorate the victory over the Pawnee, Chief Smoke Maker's newborn son was carried to the battlefield by an old woman and caused him to put his feet on two of the Pawnee corpses, whereupon he was given the name Non-ba-a-ton meaning “treads on two” (Dorsey, 1890, pp. The United States Government denied the right of Standing Bear to obtain a writ of habeas corpus on the grounds that “an Indian is not a person within the meaning of the law.”. In the early 1800s, the Ponca were still a semi-sedentary tribe living in earth lodges that the Arikara taught them and the Omaha how to construct. The case of Standing Bear vs. Crook was brought before Judge Elmer S. Dundy in U.S. District Court on 30 April 1879, and by 12 May 1879 Judge Dundy had filed his now famous decision in favor of Chief Standing Bear holding that “an Indian is a person the same as a white man, and similarly entitled to the protection of the constitution.” Standing Bear and his followers were set free, and he then continued back to the Ponca tribal burial grounds on the Missouri bluffs where he buried his son with tribal honors. Of the 3,581 enrolled tribal members, 3000 live within the state of Oklahoma. My name is Nadia Lynn Kent. On behalf of the Ponca Business Committee and Ponca Tribe, we extend... our condolences for the loss of a well respected veteran and elder of the Ponca Tribe. 3.1 Correspondence and Census; 4 … Allen, Delkhina dau. Copyright © 2018 Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. Drum – principle chief of Fish Smell Village. The Ponca, linguistically related to the Sioux, had settled in the area of northeast Nebraska and southeast South Dakota, having migrated there from the Ohio River Valley. The agent, angry at their lack of cooperation, then left the Ponca chiefs, some of whom were advanced in years and ill. According to Alice Fletcher in The Omaha Tribe (Fletcher & Laflesche, 1911, p. 51) by November 1874, the total population of the Ponca was counted as 733 persons, divided into three villages along the Niobrara River. The information furnished to Fletcher by the Office of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs showed the Wa-in-xu-de or “Gray Blanket” village was said to have a population of 377 persons, the Hu-Bthon or “Fish Smell” village had 144 persons, and the “Point” village had 248 persons. By 1906, just one year prior to Oklahoma statehood, the total Ponca population was 833, divided as 570 Southern Ponca in Oklahoma and 263 Northern Ponca in Nebraska. In 1936 the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act paved the way for the Southern Ponca in Oklahoma to create a constitution and by-laws still in use today. Mr. & Mrs. John Allen, Apr. COMMENTS; ABRAHAMSON: Bertha (Littlecook) 11 … In 1966, the Northern Poncas were completely terminated and all of their land and tribal holdings were dissolved. Therefore, Standing Bear and sixty-six followers left the Ponca Reservation in January 1879 on foot, following a wagon containing the body of his dead son, as they headed north to the traditional Ponca burial grounds in Nebraska. Chief Standing Bear's daughter Prairie Flower, and his wife Shines White, were among those who died along the way. As a result of the 2000 census, it was determined that there were 4,858 individuals in the United States that identified themselves as being Ponca alone, or Ponca in combination with another tribe or race. Occasionally, small elements of the Lakota would sometimes raid the Ponca as well, taking horses or stealing corn they had grown. Later during the 1600s, the Ponca, Omaha, Osage and Kansas that went upriver along the Mississippi, stayed for a time near present day Osage and Gasconde Counties in Missouri, west of present day St. Louis. The Omaha Daily Herald Newspaper publicized the plight of the Ponca group, and it was carried by many other newspapers across the country. Also, 350 acres had been planted with corn and other vegetables (Foreman, 1946, pp. The other is the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska. However, by the time they entered the camp, the Pawnee had fled. Fancy Dance Casino is owned and operated by The Ponca Enterprise Gaming, LLC (PEG), a subsidiary of the Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. In the spring of the following year, in 1859, the Ponca tried to make their customary tribal buffalo hunt, but encountered a combined party of Sicangu Lakota, Oglala Lakota and Cheyenne at the headwaters of the Elkhorn River. In addition, 350 head of cattle, and 600 horses were recorded, along with wagons that had been provided. Bending to their inevitable situation, the Ponca chiefs signed a treaty with the U.S. Government on 12 March 1858 which ceded to the government all 2.3 million acres of land which the Ponca owned or claimed “except for a small portion on which to colonize or domesticate them.” In return, the Federal Government promised to “protect the tribe in the possession of the remainder of their domain as their permanent home and to secure them in their persons and property” (Royce, 1899, p. 818). LAST NAME. The other is the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska. Despite their original reservation having been established in 1858, the Ponca suffered decades of broken treaties, a lack of financial support from the U.S. Government, and ongoing attacks by the neighboring Sioux, with whom they were sworn enemies. Some 50 days later, the Ponca chiefs reached the Otoe Reservation along the Kansas/Nebraska border. The Ponca Tribe today has about 4,200 members with many still settled in Ponca City. 253-254). Ponca Tribe of Nebraska PO Box 288 Niobrara NE 68760 voice 402.857.3391 fax 402.857.3736 official website of the Nebraska/Northern Ponca Tribe Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma 20 White Eagle Drive Ponca City OK 74601 voice 580.762.9567 fax 580.762.2743 Official website of the Oklahoma/Southern Ponca Tribe Population: 1984: Total enrollment 2,028. These Ponca chiefs were documented by the Mormons as: There were many Mormons who wrote journals about their life and enjoyable experiences among the Ponca. The Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma is headquartered in Ponca City, Oklahoma. The Poncas, who were allotted in 1890, saw their land go to non-Indian settlers through a September 1893 land run, an event that its Euro-American participants and their descendants celebrated. Dissatisfied with the reservation system established after the Civil War, reformers and politicians decided to assimilate American Indians by forcing private ownership of land. Although Standing Bear and his followers were freed in the spring of 1879, they had no home to return to in Nebraska. Ponca City is a city in Kay County in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. They settled in present-day Nebraska and South Dakota. These guidelines were adopted by the Oklahoma … Treaties. They migrated up the Des Moines River to its headwaters in what is now Minnesota and built a village for a time near the pipestone quarries. 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