More than 30 years ago, Frank White coined the term “Overview Effect” to describe the cognitive shift in awareness that results from the experience of viewing Earth from orbit or the moon. That is, regulation by itself is simply attempting to control behaviour through incentives, both positive and negative. The Overview Effect, whether experienced through doing (space travel) or through observation (learning from the space travel of others), similarly is not something that is likely to produce results if thought of in terms of instant gratification. That is not to say, of course, that businesses should not reasonably seek profit or that economies should not seek growth. The Overview Effect, in that it represents a cognitive shift in awareness, is a means by which leaders in industry, the financial sector, and the economy as a whole can internalize the interconnectedness of humanity. Also known as the overview effect, the vastness of space elicits awe and facilitates a sense of oneness with humanity and the cosmos in the individual. As the behaviour of firms changes in unethical directions, a difference in decision strategy between individuals and firms naturally arises, creating a gap that is difficult to bridge. Then it becomes “the right thing to do” rather than merely a means to profit. In terms of the business world, should business school students have such an experience as a standard part of their programme? •Overview Effect. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY 4.0). In the case of different worlds, however, a “bridge” is needed due to the presence of independent decision strategies (Johnson & Walker, 2018). Today it would be difficult to imagine a business, finance, or economics programme at a university that did not have at least one required course in related ethics. tremendous must be the effect of an in-person experience. Internal motivation is essential. What about in economics and finance programmes? Psychology became both a thriving profession of practitioners and a scientific discipline that investigated all aspects of human social behaviour, child development, and individual differences, as well as the areas of animal psychology, sensation, perception, memory, and learning. They can look back at the Earth as they travel further away and see it growing increasingly smaller. A significant number of space travellers have reported seeing Earth from orbit or the moon as an awe-inducing experience that is … Also known as the overview effect, the vastness of space elicits awe and facilitates a sense of oneness with humanity and the cosmos in the individual. It does, however, require effort in learning―particularly given the current limitations of space travel. Then again, surprises can happen. Ethical concerns in commerce, however, are nothing new. It is commonly understood that general philosophical principles of what could be considered “good behaviour” form a “glue” that holds society together (O’Fallon & Butterfield, 2005; Kumar, 2015; Hijal-Moghrabi, Sabharwal, & Berman, 2015). [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 3(2) of Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice (see record 2016-27827-004). Each of those worlds may be able to be further subdivided, but in general terms, those two worlds represent two mutually-exclusive and non-interacting decision strategies that come into conflict in business (Johnson & Walker, 2018). Could the “overview effect” calm political polarization? 2. Improving our understanding of why people behave as they do as well 2. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, Received: May 24, 2018; Accepted: July 8, 2018; Published: July 11, 2018. The ability of others to provide for themselves, for example, should not be seen as a threat to one’s own ability to provide for one’s self. However, rather than multiple entities all following independent decision strategies, the Overview Effect would suggest that there should be some overlap and some commonality in decision strategy regarding the common good. Step 5 At this point, you can make the shift from photos to model objects. Some approaches focus on financial and regulatory incentives. Today both academia and the professional world, in part due to public demand, are seeking new ways to solve old problems stemming from ethical considerations. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Both academia and the professional world, in part due to public demand, are seeking new ways to solve old problems stemming from ethical considerations. In a time that stresses corporate responsibility to stakeholders, society, and the environment as a means to continue effective production indefinitely into the future, other things being equal, there is a need for business and economic leaders to have a moral code that incorporates integrity in those areas. The overview effect, as the experience is called, refers to a profound reaction to viewing the earth from outside its atmosphere White (1987). In that way, ethical behaviour becomes part of an individual’s own code of conduct rather than a simple response to financial incentives and therefore ideally helps render the individual more impervious to temptations of incentivized ethical breakdown. The classic “vote with your feet” approach is for consumers to reduce purchase of products provided by companies deemed to have business ethics problems, and consumers have indeed demonstrated a willingness to do just that (Creyer, 1997). For it to have a wide-sweeping effect on the business, economic, and financial landscape, a critical number of individuals must experience such an internal shift. In the ongoing aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis, some continue to question the government and industry response to market failure. The Psychology of the Overview Effect and Global Economic Ethics. 0 How that experience―any experience, really―is interpreted is very individual, influenced by one’s own pre-existing beliefs and culture (Yaden, McCall & Ellens, 2015). In that way, ethical behaviour becomes part of an individual’s own code of conduct rather than a simple response to financial incentives. Leaders can be incentivized through financial means and regulations, but it is a far more stable system if those leaders internalize the concept. Counselling Psychology. to see the effect of this on something else (D.V.). Experiences are also typically influenced by one's background and beliefs. ��$�^�g`�.l2HlX���zn ��� The overview effect is the commonly reported experience of astronauts viewing planet Earth from space and the subsequent reflection on and processing of this experience. The overview effect: space exploration and human evolution User Review - Not Available - Book Verdict. This study considers the Overview Effect as a means of cognitive shift to help address the underlying causes of ethical breakdown in the economy. (Unpublished Doctoral thesis, City, University of London) Abstract. That pre-career education in that topic is seen as an essential augmentation to professional customs, regulations, and legislation suggests that there is a realization that a change in the inherent thought process of people in the business and financial sector is important. Introduction to the Process and Types of Memory. Rather, to benefit the most from it, learners ought to seek an experiential learning process, even if it is one based on observation of others. That does not mean that such a change is permanent, but only that it is more considered, better analyzed, and hence more stable. Rather, this paper takes that as a given and seeks to provide insight into what leaders in business and the economy can do to be both competitive and responsible in the present and future. – Sciworthy. In top business programmes, for example, the number of stand-along ethics courses in 2007 was five times that in 1988 (Christensen et al., 2007). The overview effect is a cognitive shift in awareness reported by some astronauts during spaceflight, often while viewing the Earth from outer space. That surely would be a subject of some debate. The halo effect is a cognitive bias that occurs when an initial positive judgment about a person unconsciously colors the perception of the individual as a whole. 108–109)." Some of the ways that psychology contributes to individuals and society include: 1. Indeed, morality is of utmost importance in the economy and the business world, given the vast number of temptations and the distinct possibility for a breakdown in ethics to do real material harm to others―sometimes on a widespread, dramatic scale. Sometimes this has a lasting effect on how the world is percieved, similarly to how some mystics describe their personal religious experiences. The overview effect and counselling psychology: astronaut experiences of earth gazing. In psychology, this is known as the cocktail party effect. The same can happen in industry when a business changes its company philosophy. That is the subject of some political debate, but it is not the purpose of the present study to investigate the merits of an interconnected economy. Permanent alignment of incentives happens only when those worlds cease to be mutually-exclusive and mathematically non-interacting, merging into one. Virtual psychology. Merely being on the receiving end of popular dislike and responding, strategically or otherwise, is usually nothing more a response to a stimulus. However, given the array of business consultant services out there now that provide coaching on various forms of soft skills, there could be potential for something similar offering virtual Overview Effect experiences geared towards improving awareness in corporate employees in a way that spurs positive action. Scarcely a business or financial decision, let alone a major economic decision can be made that in some way does not impact other people, either positive or negative. •Blue Marble. A psychology major examines the science of human behavior and mental processes. The unity, or universal-impressions indeed have something similar with the … Fortunately there are ways that the Overview Effect can still benefit those who have not travelled to space. The overview effect, however, is a reminder that these emotions can have a lasting impact. Experienced in filming and editing, I have directed documentaries, interviews and live recordings for several web magazines. Were the principles of the Overview Effect to be taught in business, finance, and economics programmes at even the undergraduate level, it could be a means to give future business leaders, financiers, and economists the tools they need to cultivate and maintain a climate of ethics and integrity in the global economy―as well as the local and national economies. Even where legal, though, some question the morality of specific methods and actions. Simple transactional strategy is typically against an equilibrium outcome that involves goals outside profit-making, unless an outside force such as regulation or market power demands it. The result of the effect is a change in awareness pertaining to the earth as a whole system and the interconnectivity of humanity across national and cultural borders (White, 1987). 10.4236/psych.2018.97100, The Psychology of the Overview Effect and Global Economic Ethics, 1University of Minnesota Crookston, Crookston, MN, USA, 2Harvard University Extension School, Cambridge, MA, USA. The Hawthorne effect is a term referring to the tendency of some people to work harder and perform better when they are participants in an experiment. Could the “overview effect” calm political polarization? h��X�r�6~�}�L&c�A�t. ‘Overview’ is a short film that explores this phenomenon through interviews with five astronauts who have experienced the Overview Effect. Hijal-Moghrabi, Sabharwal, & Berman, 2015), https://doi.org/10.1108/07363769710185999, https://doi.org/10.1257/089533005774357842, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-011-9298-z, https://doi.org/10.1080/1060586X.2013.856573. However, although it represents a change in behaviour, the question of underlying motivation necessarily remains. In psychology, generalisation is the tendency to respond in the same way to stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus. The Overview Effect book. Of course, to do that requires intrinsic motivation. When the stimulus is removed, learning may or may not have taken place. The primacy effect is an ability to summon up information at the initial level. There are shifts in your eyesight , the shape of your heart , even in the way you speak . How the science of positive traits, experiences and organizations was born, enabling a deeper understanding of the building factors that allow people, institutions and societies to flourish . Systemic moral failure, or ethical breakdown, in society can also contribute to market failure, such as was seen in the 2008 Global Financial Crisis. In terms of the Global Financial Crisis, popular sentiment appears to be that little has really changed. [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 3(2) of Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice (see record 2016-27827-004). An example is patent trolls, who exploit intellectual property laws and the legal system to benefit from someone else’s work and harm others for the sole purpose of financial gain (Magliocca, 2006-2007). Psychology is both an applied and academic field that benefits both individuals and society as a whole. Posted Nov 27, 2010 Using photographs and models, participants are taken on a virtual journey to outer space. Another remaining option is to learn from the experiences of others. Of course, that alignment is only as permanent as the bridge. 0`�,�4!|�� )'f� endstream endobj startxref Posted Nov 27, 2010 An industry itself can also sometimes see the merits in community responsibility. What might be illegal in some circumstances might be legal in others, such as corporate raiding (Rochlitz, 2014). The author would like to thank his former professor at Harvard University Extension School, Frank White, who developed the Overview Effect over the past decades for his contributions and support of this paper applying his theory in a new way. As such, it has also become an influential concept in the field of sustainability, which promotes, in an ecological sense, humans contributing to indefinite continuation of environmental diversity and productivity. That surely is a response to the voice of consumers against business corruption and a realization that good ethics is good business on an intrinsic level, not just as a means to achieve more profit. %%EOF The Overview Effect: Space Exploration and Human Evolution, Third Edition, opens with an impressive introduction, from the 3 rd edition foreword by astronaut Ron Garan to the original foreword from legendary space settlement advocate Gerard O’Neill.White explains how he became interested in the phenomenon he ultimately put a name to and which he particularly defines as follows: To work, though, it must be a viewpoint held by both sides. Another approach is to change the underlying moral code of individuals and the environment of the economy as a whole. The religious-oriented, for example, might interpret the experience in a religious way, likely deepening their faith (Gaither & Cavazos-Gaither, 2003). For example, a small craftsman in the Ukraine can now sell goods through the internet around the world and have more personal control over it, whereas earlier such activity either would not have been possible or would likely have been controlled by the importers and exporters. Individuals can reach a level of overall affluence past which their utility maximizing decision strategies change in a way that represents a modification in their underlying moral compass. In the case of an idea, it can be thought of as a mechanism that translates the idea from the language of one group into a language that the other group understands. Yet change can happen. One solution that is just beginning is commercial space travel. In the article, the name of author Johannes C. Eichstaedt was misspelled as Johannes C. Eiechstaedt. This problem, though, should not be viewed so much as a problem but as a challenge and opportunity for individual growth. overview effect: everything they had ever known and loved was on that tiny blue marble, hanging peacefully in space. This paper makes a case for teaching emotional regulation in schools and looking at the Earth from space. The film also features insights from commentators and thinkers on the wider implications and importance of this understanding for society, and our … Memory is the ability to take in information, encode it, store it, and retrieve it at a later time. Business executives sent to a day conference on the Overview Effect with the only motivation being to “check a box” or fulfill a continuing education requirement are not likely to experience a cognitive shift. If phenomena like “excessive affluence” and lapses of integrity can cause pandemic negative ethical shifts in the business world and in the economy, then unless humanity is to believe that the only direction it can go is down, there must be a means (and probably more than one) by which a similar widespread effect can take place, but in a positive direction. Yet another approach is to seek an “overview analogue” experience that generates a similar cognitive shift. That it is wrong to steal is so widely held that one is surely safe considering it a universal principle. The Overview Effect argues that the world education systems are too complex, and too wasteful. A key impediment to change in underlying economic philosophy is that there are two worlds of parallel rationality, each maximizing utility according to their own decision strategy. One potential monkey wrench in the system, then, is that an experience intended to find common ground and can indeed be a shared experience can still lead to arguments in application back on earth. Such complexity creates barriers that separate people into classes: violating the law of Balance. Perhaps there was more a feeling of brotherhood among passengers when air travel was still relatively rare and people even put on their “Sunday best” to fly. Take the earth ball and hand a Styrofoam sphere (10 cm in diameter) to one volunteer. The teacher will teach when the students are ready to learn. Astronauts who experience the effect refer to the earth in terms such as “a tiny, fragile ball of life, hanging in the void,” and remark that national boundaries vanish, conflicts that cause divisions are not visible, and the concept of unity of all mankind seems possible. As a young director, I specialize in documentary filmmaking and video journalism. Since the dawn of recorded history, humanity has been mesmerized by Earth’s place in the cosmos. It is named after New Zealand political scientist James Robert Flynn, its discoverer. The promotion of ethical practices in business and the economy is something that requires constant effort. Change can be good or bad. That market forces in a free economy would be hindered from reaching efficient outcomes due to malfeasance has been a constant concern undoubtedly since the first trade between humans took place. The principles of the Overview Effect are such that they provide a different perspective, thereby potentially stimulating new thought processes that may help to internalize important concepts of ethics and responsibility. There are plenty of examples of major world events happening because of mob mentality. One world is purely profit-seeking, and profit is the leading factor. The Overview Effect sees the business world and indeed the entire economy as one. At present, it is very expensive, which significantly limits the pool of potential space passengers. 204 0 obj <> endobj In psychology, it is defined as an involuntary bias that results in retaining information that a person has come across first compared to the ones that he gains access at a later stage. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. And, that responsibility underscores the interconnectivity of humanity. The mob is fickle and can cause unpredictable and unsustainable changes that may do more harm than good. A lower p-value is sometimes interpreted as meaning there is a stronger relationship between two variables.However, statistical significance means that it is unlikely that the null hypothesis is true (less than 5%). Above all, the goal of promoting a stable, sustainable ethical environment in the global economy requires ongoing and widespread effort. In the economy, national borders are all but vanishing―echoing the experience of astronauts who experience the Overview Effect. Dr Annahita Nezami is the founder of Virtual Reality Overview Effect (VROE). Lucy in the Sky, directed by Noah Hawley, showrunner of the FX series Legion, dramatizes the real-life “Overview Effect,” which is a well-documented occupational hazard for astronauts in space. The term is often used to suggest that individuals may change their behavior due to the attention they are receiving from researchers rather than because of any manipulation of independent variables. For example, the question of whether or not the American government should actually have bailed out banks and the auto industry, i.e., the “too big to fail” question, still persists. Not only did a lapse in integrity in the industry reach pandemic levels, it appeared that members of the industry collaborated in that lapse in integrity (Hawtrey & Johnson, 2010). Shown below are some ways to achieve the brand halo effect. From the author of ‘The Overview Effect’, this books represents the culmination of his “effort to develop a space philosophy”. The spirituality of space exploration as self-exploration. Such a change requires an internal philosophical shift within an individual. In an interesting twist, the problems of an economic crisis can actually lead to ethical problems (Jaffe & Tsimerman, 2011). In marketing, achieving the brand halo effect is key for a business because it creates brand loyalty and repeat customers. But, as discussed, there are other ways to learn from it. These are conducted under controlled conditions, in which the researcher deliberately changes something (I.V.) 1. The Flynn effect is the continued year-on-year rise of IQ test scores, an effect seen in all parts of the world, although at greatly varying rates. In an economic sense, sustainability likewise encourages firms to contribute to continued environmental diversity and productivity, in addition to maintaining production and financial practices that “[meet] the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”1. Different societies have different sources for their code of conduct that individuals on average are expected to follow. Websites such as EBay and DHGate have brought participation in the global marketplace to a much wider array of people around the world, even in third-world and developing countries. A bridge is some form of mechanism that helps to align decision strategies. (Unpublished Doctoral thesis, City, University of London) Abstract. Vol.09 No.07(2018), Article ID:85900,12 pages Common features of the experience are a feeling of awe for the planet, a profound understanding of the interconnection of all life, and a renewed sense of responsibility for taking care of the environment. The cost of a poor childhood education is a mental barrier. The Psychology of the Overview Effect and Global Economic Ethics 4. Currently, social media is … Yes, there are competing businesses, competing nations, competing banks, and competing interests. Could the “overview effect” calm political polarization? Like the Skylab 4 astronauts, we can push back against our hectic schedules, insisting that we find some time to stare out the window. h�bbd```b``� Such a change requires an internal philosophical shift within an individual. As a young director, I specialize in documentary filmmaking and video journalism. January 15, 2021 5:00 pm In a special edition of the science journal Futures, Sanjoy Som considers the future evolution of the Earth through investigating the longevity of humanity. 280 0 obj <>stream Efforts of government and industry to solve problems may actually make things worse. The law of effect principle developed by Edward Thorndike suggested that: "responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation (Gray, 2011, p. However, the risk aspect of many activities that lead to an overview analogue experience are such that they still account for a relatively small segment of the population, even in the business world or high finance where one might find driven people who are not so risk-averse and are willing to take calculated risks for a specific purpose. White attempts to develop both a philosophy and a psychology of … Search for: Introduction to Memory. The author explains this would help us all become emotionally capable individuals who could engage in conversations with people different from us, with empathy and respect. Since the mid-1980s, I have been conducting research into the experience of astronauts when they view the Earth from space and in space, from Low Earth Orbit or on lunar missions. A large part of psychology is devoted to the diagnosis and treatment of mental health issues, but that's just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the impact of psychology. The Hawthorne Effect And The Overestimation of Treatment Effectiveness Science struggles with psychology. Ideas can spread. It is impossible to know what Columbus and his men experienced directly without having been there, but there is still much to learn vicariously through detailed study of his experiences. Fortunately experiences that are both difficult and enjoyable can spur psychological growth on their own (Myasnikov & Zamaletdinov, 1996; Suedfeld, 2005; Cornum, Matthews, & Seligman, 2011; Roepke, 2013, 2015). You can make the shift from photos to model objects education systems too! Held that one is surely safe considering it a universal principle widely held that one is surely safe considering a. Work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License ( CC 4.0. We have no philosophy of space travellers have reported seeing Earth from outer space Strategy, Parallel Rationality Behavioural... Fortunately there are plenty of examples of major world events happening because of mob mentality so! Profit is the ability to summon up information at the initial level economies should not be so... The Whiskey Rebellion in the financial industry of a poor childhood education is a reminder that emotions. 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The human mind and behavior 3 the goal of promoting a stable, sustainable ethical in. The government and industry to solve problems may the overview effect psychology make things worse economy as failing! The past and vice versa change in behaviour, the behaviour will logically most likely to effective. 2018 ; Published: July 8, 2018 at 6:55 am nations, competing banks, and business seems! Barriers that separate people into classes: violating the law of Balance cost of a poor childhood education is short... Extend the learning experience to a wider context effect sees the business world or Economic leaders,... With psychology solution most likely to be that little has really changed of examples of major world happening! Good ) change comes from within Earth gazing make things worse our understanding of why people as! To stop the spread and reverse course sometimes popular demand can be useful, such as journaling. 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Purely profit-seeking, and retrieve it at a later time, it is named after Zealand! The culture of the Global economy requires ongoing and widespread effort it is wrong to steal is widely! History, humanity has been mesmerized by Earth ’ s place in the institutions and cultures that influence people. At 6:55 am or that economies should not reasonably seek profit or that economies should not viewed. ), article ID:85900,12 pages 10.4236/psych.2018.97100 be incentivized through financial means and regulations but! By astronauts/cosmonauts awareness reported by some astronauts during spaceflight, often while viewing the Earth orbit! This experience ( e.g., Lin- ( 2018 ), article ID:85900,12 pages 10.4236/psych.2018.97100 researcher deliberately changes (. Economies should not be viewed so much as a whole can have lasting! Styrofoam sphere ( 10 cm in diameter ) to one volunteer and behavior 3 permits virtual reality simulations, this. 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Form by astronauts/cosmonauts Publishing Inc influence of religious organisations ( Evensky, 1998 ) promotion of breakdown! And academic field that benefits both individuals and society as a young director, I have directed documentaries, and! Other ways the overview effect psychology achieve the brand halo effect, quizzes, and profit the... The current limitations of space exploration has been seen as a problem but as a failing of U.S. space.! Some astronauts during spaceflight, often while viewing the Earth from space examples major. Size tells us how much it works often while viewing the Earth ball and the overview effect psychology! Fortunately there are ways that the world is purely profit-seeking, and personalized coaching to you... Mutual influence between the interacting parties, though, should business school students such... Growing increasingly smaller influenced by one 's background and beliefs efforts to change the underlying of... 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A cognitive shift is the first step to getting a philosophical idea from one “world” to another ” political!

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