Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Prince of Calenberg. Ruled jointly. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover), Duke George William of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lunenberg, Ernest, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, Conrad of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince-Bishop of Verden, Sophia Dorothea of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, Elizabeth Juliana of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderburg-Nordborg, Christine Sophie of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Elisabeth Sophie Marie of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderborg-Norburg, Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Antoinette Amalie of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Elisabeth Sybille of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, List of the rulers of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Duchy_of_Brunswick-Lüneburg&oldid=999575739, 1230s establishments in the Holy Roman Empire, 1806 disestablishments in the Holy Roman Empire, States and territories established in 1235, Articles needing additional references from August 2018, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 1630–1636. His son, Christian Louis, inherited the Principality of Lüneburg from George's brother. The Saxon steed was dropped from the coat of arms during the reign of William VIII. In 1714, the Hanoverian branch of the family succeeded to the throne of Great Britain, which they ruled in personal union with Hanover until 1837. "Le Duc de Brunswick: Sa vie et ses moeurs. +254780710787,0722710787. [20] The greater coat of arms of the Duchy of Brunswick, as adopted in 1834, shows a shield with a ducal crown on top and surrounded by the insignia of the Order of Henry the Lion. Duchess Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick and Luneburg with her children George and Sophia Dorothea. The Duchy of Brunswick State Railway was the first state railway in Germany. In the 10th year of his reign he was driven from the Duchy, and had since condemned these treasonous acts of his brother and Hanover as capital offenses, and sentenced them as such. Fulfilling the agreement of Hanover, married the daughter of the Duke Wenceslaus of Saxe-Wittenberg. From the year 1137, under the name of the Guelphic Lands (Welfissche Lande), it was under the Dukes of Brunswick. As he left no male descendants, the land had no heir and was occupied by the Principality of Wolfenbüttel. It’s a good idea for UK citizens to check with NaTHNaC (National Travel Health Network and Centre) at least 2 months before their trip to Brunswick and Lüneburg.. 1506 people (0.40%) were foreign nationals, among those 785 came from Austria-Hungary, 133 from the United Kingdom, 112 from the United States, 91 from Italy, 83 from the Russian Empire, and 81 from Switzerland. After the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, the Brunswick-Lüneburg territories became the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick. Both branches used in their arms the two lions of Brunswick, the blue lion of Lüneburg and the white steed of Saxony. In 1432, as a result of increasing tensions with the townsfolk of Brunswick, the Brunswick Line moved their Residence to Wolfenbüttel, into the water castle, which was expanded into a Schloss, whilst the town was developed into a royal seat. They offer vaccine recommendations and the latest news on outbreaks and other health risks as well as factsheets that contain useful information for staying healthy during your travel. [18] Due to the legend associated with it, the white horse became a very popular symbol among the population of Brunswick, even more so than the lions.[19]. In 1584 absorbes the Principality of Calenberg. His death without descendants precipitated the. The Duchy of Brunswick (German: Herzogtum Braunschweig) was a historical German state. In 1269 the house of Brunswick-Lüneburg divided into the branches of Lüneburg and Brunswick (later Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, the later Duchy of Brunswick). These acts were officially declared as an English invasion and usurpation in the edict of Charles II of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel on May 10, 1827. In 1494, they divided their lands. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library: referencedIn: Autograph File, E, 1564-1961. In 1814 it was succeeded by the Kingdom of Hanover. His grandsons, Frederick, Bernard and Henry, secured Lüneburg in 1388, but in 1428 Bernard, the only survivor of the three, was forced to make a division of the duchy, by which he received Lüneburg, while his nephews, William and Henry, obtained Brunswick, which in 1432 they divided into Calenberg and Wolfenbüttel. The Duke of Cumberland's eldest son having died in 1912, the elderly Duke renounced Brunswick in favor of his youngest son, Ernest Augustus, who married Emperor Wilhelm II's daughter, swore allegiance to the German Empire, and renounced all claims to Hanover. [10] In the 1870s, the Duchy of Brunswick State Railway merged with the Royal Prussian State Railways. Sons of Ernest II, ruled jointly. The whole world unanimously honored his will which stated Hanover and his brother were (after having been condemned to death) not his natural family. Hanover being the Junior branch, and Wolfenbüttel the Elder. The duchy was located in what is now northwestern Germany. Inherited Wolfenbüttel from his father. Brunswick County is a member of the regional Cape Fear Council of Governments. Sons of William V, ruled jointly. After being split in the course of the years into smaller and smaller principalities it Grubenhagen finally returned in 1596 to Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. John abdicated 1364 to join the clergy and Albert became sole ruler. The Wolfenbüttel principality had for the period from 1807 to 1813 been held as part of the Kingdom of Westphalia. With sole rights to the duchy Brunswick-Lüneburg, he provided a conditional sub-lease of the principality of Lüneburg to the princes of Calenburg with the conditions of payment to the Wolfenbüttel heirs (Chief of the House), together with the guarantee that only his descendants would inherit this senior principality of Wolfenbüttel. It was established as the successor state of the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. In 1705 reunited his father-in-law's princedom of Lüneburg to the Electorate. Subsequently, George I was referred to as Elector of Hanover. [1][2] By 1692, the territories had consolidated to two: the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. The unifying element of all these territories was that they were ruled by male-line descendants of Duke Otto I (ruled 1235-1252). The name Wolfenbüttel was given to this principality. To reinforce his claim married the widow of the previous duke, Katherine. No legitimate issue. First, the young duke had a dispute over the date of his majority. As he left no male heirs, the land passed to his younger brother, Ernest Augustus. History Dukes and Electors of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Grubenhagen is definitively annexed to Lüneburg. As with most matters in Europe during these times, this was part of the centuries-long religious unrest accompanied by outright warfare (see Thirty Years' War) triggered by the zealous advocates on either side of the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation. content language. [8], In 1905, 450,760 people or 92.5% of the population adhered to the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Brunswick. During the first half of the 19th century, the Kingdom of Hanover was ruled as personal union by the British crown from its creation under George III of the United Kingdom, the last elector of Hanover until the death of William IV in 1837. Over time, the arms of smaller territories that had been acquired by the Dukes of Brunswick were added to the coat of arms. The Wolfenbüttel Line retained its independence, except from 1807 to 1813, when it and Hanover were merged into the Napoleonic Kingdom of Westphalia. The Duchy of Brunswick was subdivided into six districts (Kreise) in 1833. Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (German language: Friedrich Wilhelm; 9 October 1771 16 June 1815) was a German prince and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Oels. This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 22:04. New territory was added in 1665 in the vicinity of Grubenhagen and in 1705 around the Principality of Lüneburg. The princes are numbered by the year of their succession. The title "Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg" (German: Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg) was held, from 1235 on, by various members of the Welf (Guelph) family who ruled several small territories in northwest Germany. Found in the collection of Bomann Museum Celle. The Duchy of Brunswick consisted of several non-connected parts - three larger and seven smaller ones. Ruler of the only land that was still not in Hanoverian lands, to which it would never belong. The Wolfenbüttel Line retained its independence, except from 1807 to 1813, when it and Hanover were merged into the Napoleonic Kingdom of Westphalia. The county was formed in 1764 from parts of Bladen County and New Hanover County.It was named for the colonial port of Brunswick Town (now in ruins) which was itself named for Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg; at the time held by the British kings of the House of Hanover.. Law and government Edit. Brunswick starts the game as a member of the Holy Roman Empire (HRE) and shares borders with multiple countries, including three HRE Electors — Brandenburg, Cologne and Saxony. If Ernest Augustus–who had been created the Duke of Cumberland in the British peerage–were unable to succeed, the council would also be empowered to appoint a regent. Inherited Lüneburg as he was son of Elisabeth, daughter of William the Elder. The title "Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg" (German: Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg) was held, from 1235 on, by various members of the Welf family who ruled several small territories in northwest Germany.These holdings did not have all of the formal characteristics of a state, being neither compact nor indivisible. Deutsch: Christian der Ältere, Herzog von Braunschweig und Lüneburg, (* 9. Abdicated to his son in 1641. Colloquially the Electorate was also known as the Electorate of Hanover or as Kurhannover. History Dukes and Electors of Brunswick-Lüneburg. John had 4 siblings: Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg , Ernest Augustus Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg , George William Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Christian Louis Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg . It had been a portion of the medieval Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg.From 1705 onward, all other portions of Brunswick-Lüneburg except Wolfenbüttel had been held by the Prince of Calenberg and Celle, i.e. Henry the Black, duke of Bavaria from 1120–1126, was the first of the three dukes of the Welf dynasty called Henry.His wife Wulfhild was the heiress of the house of Billung, possessing the territory around Lüneburg in Lower Saxony. William originally considered himself only his brother's regent, but after a year declared himself ruling duke. George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, is considered the first member of the House of Hanover.When the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg was divided in 1635, George inherited the principalities of Calenberg and Göttingen, and in 1636 he moved his residence to Hanover.His son, Duke Ernest Augustus, was elevated to prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire in 1692. In the event, George I succeeded his second cousin Anne, Queen of Great Britain — the last reigning member of the House of Stuart, and subsequently formed a personal union from 1 August 1714 between the British crown and the duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (electorate of Hanover) which would last until well after the end of the Napoleonic wars more than a century later—including even through the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and the rise of a new successor kingdom. The biggest and most populous of those was the area surrounding the cities of Braunschweig, Wolfenbüttel and Helmstedt as well as the Elm, which extended from the river Aller in the north to the Harz mountains in the south. Their son, Henry the Proud was the son-in-law and heir of Emperor Lothair of Supplinburg and became also duke of Saxony on Lothair's death. Ferdinand, Charles-Guillaume Duc de Brunswick-Lunebourg 1721-1792 Ferdinand, Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg, 1721-1792 Ferdinand, Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, 1721-1792 Otto abdicated in 1527 and founded his own estate, the, Regent on behalf of her son, Eric. The text included all the domains, estates, etc of Brunswick were transferred to Geveva. Proofread and pages added by Jonathan Perry, March 2001. Left no male heirs, and his land passed to a collateral line. He was the last king of Hanover, as his reign ended with the, The regency came to an end on 1 November 1913 when Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover's son Ernest Augustus was permitted to ascend to Duchy following his marriage to Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia. Find the perfect Duke Of Brunswick Lüneburg stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Media in category "Christian Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg" The following 8 files are in this category, out of 8 total. For further information on the governments of Brunswick from 1918 on, see Free State of Brunswick. Link with Great Britain Civil Ensign 1727–1801. The House of Brunswick originated from the Italian House of Este. Cello Solar is an associate company of one of the UK’s leading LED TV brands,Cello Electronics. On Frederick Ulrich's death, his complex of territories passed to a line of distant cousins ruling in Lüneburg. Christian the Elder, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg by Robert Van Voerst, Daniel Mytems ca. When Charles' brother William VIII arrived in Brunswick on 10 September, he was received joyfully by the people. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for The Kaiser's daughter: Memoirs of H. R. H. Viktoria Luise, Duchess of Brunswick and Lüneburg, Princess of Prussia at Amazon.com. Formal sovereignty confirmed. It was not just happenstance but similar religious driven politics that brought about the circumstance that he was also put into the line of succession for the British crown by the Act of Settlement— which was written to ensure a Protestant succession to the thrones of Scotland and England at a time when anti-Catholic sentiment ran high in much of Northern Europe and much of Great Britain. In 1700 and 1701, when the English Parliament had addressed the question of an orderly succession, with a particular religious bias toward a Protestant ruler, from the childless ruling Queen Anne (House of Stuart), it passed the provisions of the Act of Settlement 1701 to Sophia of Hanover, granddaughter of James I. Sophia predeceased Queen Anne by a few weeks, but her son and heir, George I, succeeded as King of Great Britain when Anne, his second cousin, died in August 1714. to Augustus, son of Henry of Dannenberg. Henry retained Wolfenbüttel and Eric retained Calenberg. However, the. The need for a Regent ended in 1913. However, Henry used only a single lion as his symbol. history@state.gov. For the two largest states during most of the 18th century, see, Duchy in Holy Roman Empire 1235-1269; title of "Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg" used by rulers of all successor states, History of the subordinate principalities, Principality of Calenberg (later Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg), History of the relationship to the British Crown, Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg and successors, Partitions of Brunswick-Lüneburg under Welf rule. In the course of the 19th-century history of Germany, the duchy was part of the German Confederation, the North German Confederation and from 1871 the German Empire. After the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Calenberg-Celle and its possessions were added to by the Congress of Vienna ending the Napoleonic war, being born anew under the name of Kingdom of Hanover (including Brunswick-Lüneburg). Then, in 1827, Charles declared some of the laws made during his minority invalid, which caused conflicts. When the imperial ban was placed on Henry the Lion in 1180, he lost his titles as Duke of Saxony and Duke of Bavaria. For this reason, many cities and provinces in former British colonies are named after Brunswick or Lüneburg. It emerged in 1345 as the result of a division of the Principality of Brunswick and was united in 1495 with Calenberg. According to the 1885 census, 84.90% (316,208 people) of the Duchy's inhabitants held citizenship of Brunswick, while 54,738 people (14.70%) were citizens of other German states. At his death without male descendants, the land passed to his son-in-law, the, Sons of Augustus II, ruled jointly from 1685 to 1702. [14] Eintracht Braunschweig, founded in 1895, quickly became one of the leading football clubs in Northern Germany. Brunswick is a small, landlocked country in the North Germany region. Left no descendants. [21] The new lesser coat of arms introduced under William VIII was a return to the arms of Brunswick-Lüneburg, displayed on a crowned shield supported by two lions. Charles fled the country.[2]. The flag of the Duchy of Brunswick was blue over yellow,[21] and demonstrates a remarkable similarity with the Ukrainian national colours. After the murder of their brother Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, brothers Bernard and Henry redivided the land, Henry receiving the territory of Wolfenbüttel. In 1814 the principality became the Duchy of Brunswick, with its own subordinate principalities that are all apart from the Calenburg principality from which sprang the de facto Kingdom of Hanover. While the revolutionary government frantically raised fresh troops and reorganised its armies, a Prussian-Austrian army under Charles Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick assembled at Coblenz on the Rhine. Sons of Albert I, ruled jointly. When the main line of descent became extinct in 1884, the German Emperor withheld the rightful heir, the Crown Prince of Hanover, from taking control, instead installing a regent. Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, duc de Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, 1735-1806 Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg, 1735-1806 Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, hertog van Brunswijk, 1735-1806 Younger son of William VI. In 1866 Prussia annexed the territories and refused to recognize the Kingdom of Hanover or any of those new titles. Anna of Brunswick-Lüneburg was born on December 6 1502, in Celle, to Henry The Middle, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Margaret of Saxony, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg. In 1269 the duchy was divided, Albert receiving the southern part of the state around Brunswick and John the northern territories in the area of Lüneburg. 25 hotéis em LüneburgLüneburg With his uncle Albert V, officialized the division of Grubenhagen. Coins: Brunswick-Lüneburg. Verzeichniss der Doubletten der Königlichen Privat-Bibliothek, [ca. Brunswick is a small, landlocked country in the North Germany region. Portraits of Duke Erik I of Brunswick-Calenberg and Duchess Elisabet, Princess of Brandenburg - Nationalmuseum - 15276.tif 3,138 × 4,004; 35.98 MB Erik I, 1470-1549, hertig av Braunscweig-Calenberg - Nationalmuseum - 32848.tif 2,228 × 3,682; 23.5 MB Brunswick-Lüneburg (German: Braunschweig-Lüneburg, also English: Brunswick-Lunenburg) was a historical ducal state during the period from the late Middle Ages until the late Early Modern era within the North-Western domains of the Holy Roman Empire.. They were made Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1235. It joined first the North German Confederation and in 1871 the German Empire. The Duchy's highest peak was the Wurmberg at 971 metres (3,186 ft). Posts about Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg written by liamfoley63. These recognitions were consistent with what transpired from his signed and sealed will dated the 12th of April 1873. All Welf lines continued to bear the title "Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg" between the division of 1269 and the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. His protests included repudiations of the new entities and titles created by the Council of Vienna, most of which were published in the Gazette on an annual basis. Brother of Christian Louis, George William and John Frederick. Fax: 202-955-0268 It was established as the successor state of the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by … They permanently recovered Lüneburg for the Welfs. As a latter day development, what became the Electorate of Hanover was initially called the Elector of Brunswick-Lunenberg when the Holy Roman Emperor appointed Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lunenberg an Elector in 1696 (two years before his death) in a somewhat controversial move to increase the number of Protestant electors—thereby offending the entrenched interests of the extant prince-electors who would no longer be so few. In 1269 the Principality of Brunswick was formed following the first division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. 1815 (0.39%) people were of Jewish faith. A work from the collections of the de Young and Legion of … In 1432 the Principality of Calenberg, the later Electorate of Hanover, split from Brunswick(-Wolfenbüttel), and in 1705 acquired the territory of Lüneburg. Germany, Brunswick-Lüneburg, Georg Ludwig (George I of England, 1714-27), silver Taler, 1718 HCB, Clausthal, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Nicknamed "The Black Duke", he was a military officer who led the Black Brunswickers against Napoleonic domination in Germany. Brothers of Francis Otto, ruled jointly. Charles made several desperate attempts, unsuccessfully, to depose him. Sons of Albert II, ruled jointly. To the north this new state bordered on the County of Hoya near Nienburg and extended from there in a narrow, winding strip southwards up the River Leine through Wunstorf and Hanover where it reached the Principality of Wolfenbüttel. The title "Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg" (German: Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg) was held, from 1235 on, by various members of the Welf (Guelph) family who ruled several small territories in northwest Germany.These holdings did not have all of the formal characteristics of a modern unitary state, being neither compact nor indivisible. Not until 1753/1754 was the Residence moved back to Brunswick, into the newly built Brunswick Palace. By embracing the. 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