[97], The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) divides the Snake River's watershed into two freshwater ecoregions: the "Columbia Unglaciated" ecoregion and the "Upper Snake" ecoregion. The Snake River from its source to Jackson Lake, from one mile downstream of Jackson Lake Dam to one mile downstream of the Teton Park Road Bridge at Moose, Wyoming, and from the mouth of the Hoback River to the point one mile upstream from the Highway 89 Bridge at Alpine Junction. Idaho Rivers Shown on the Map: Bear River, Big Lost River, Boise River, Bruneau River, Clearwater River, Lemhi River, Lochsa River, Middle Fork Salmon River, Owyhee River, Payette River, Salmon River, Selway River, Snake River, St. Joe River and Weiser River. By the time Lewis and Clark explored the area, the Nez Perce and Shoshone were the dominant Native American groups in the region. 5-day trips are operated from June 30 through September 17. The Missoula Floods, which occurred more than 40 times between 15,000 and 13,000 years ago, were caused by Glacial Lake Missoula on the Clark Fork repeatedly being impounded by ice dams then breaking through, with the lake's water rushing over much of eastern Washington in massive surges far larger than the Lake Bonneville Flood. The problem was to find the longest branch in the Two Ocean Plateau, which is thoroughly crisscrossed with streams. [102], The headwaters of the Snake River and the high mountains elsewhere in the watershed were historically heavily forested. Although the aquifer has maintained its level, it has become increasingly laced with contaminants. The watershed of the Columbia upstream of the Snake River confluence is 97,190 square miles (251,700 km, List of dams of the Columbia River watershed, List of tributaries of the Columbia River, List of longest rivers of the United States (by main stem), "Boundary Descriptions and Names of Regions, Subregions, Accounting Units and Cataloging Units", "Snake River - Yellowstone National Park (U.S. National Park Service)", "Eastern Snake River Plain Surface and Ground Water Interaction", "United States Geological Survey Topographic Maps", "Neogene Snake River Plain-Yellowstone Volcanic Province", "Geology, Age and Extent of the Columbia River Basalts", "Lake Bonneville and the Bonneville Flood", "Idaho's treasure; the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer", "Geologic Setting of the Snake River Plain Aquifer and Vadose Zone", "Snake River Plain Regional Aquifer System", "USGS Gage #12472800 on the Columbia River below Priest Rapids Dam, WA (Water-Data Report 2009)", "Twin Falls, Idaho Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary", "Snake River, Wyoming Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary", "Dirty Water: Ag pollution in rural wells runs deep", "EPA Approves Pollution Limits for Snake River-Hells Canyon", "USGS Gage #13010065 on the Snake River above Jackson Lake at Flagg Ranch, WY (Water-Data Report 2009)", "USGS Gage #13081500 on the Snake River near Minidoka, ID (Water-Data Report 2009)", "USGS Gage #13094000 on the Snake River near Buhl, ID (Water-Data Report 2009)", "USGS Gage #13269000 on the Snake River near Weiser, ID (Water-Data Report 2009)", "USGS Gage #13290454 on the Snake River at Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho-Oregon state line (Water-Data Report 2009)", "USGS Gage #13290454 on the Snake River near Anatone, WA (Water-Data Report 2009)", Summary of Western Snake River Prehistory, "Grand Tetons, Cunningham Cabin, Nick Wilson, Menor's Ferry", "Recreation on a Free-Flowing Lower Snake River", "Snake River (Oregon, Washington and Idaho)", "Analysis of Snake River dam removal has deficiencies, economists report", "Lower Snake River Transportation Study Final Report", "Southeast Washington Subbasin Planning Ecoregion Wildlife Assessment", "Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement: Appendix M, Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act Report", "Decline and Recovery of Snake River Salmon", "Salmon migration mystery explored on Idaho's Clearwater River", "Removal of the Grangeville & Lewiston Dams in Idaho", "Poll: Northwest voters oppose Snake River dam removal", "Replacing lower Snake River dams would cost Northwest $413 million to $565 million annually", "The Economics of Lower Snake River Dam Removal", The Snake River in Grand Teton National Park, Bonneville Slide/Bridge of the Gods land bridge, Steamboats of the upper Columbia and Kootenay Rivers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Snake_River&oldid=1001527986, Wild and Scenic Rivers of the United States, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Shoshoni-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 02:28. [26][27], As the Bonneville Floods rushed down the Snake River, the Missoula Floods occurred in the same period, but originating farther north. Paradoxically, the combination of these factors gives the young salmon further time to grow and to feed in Lower Granite Lake, so when they begin the migration to the Pacific Ocean, they often have a higher chance at survival, compared to those salmon who migrate to the ocean earlier. (McNary Dam is not part of the Lower Snake River Project.) Western Cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorous leucostoma). The flood widened Hells Canyon but did not deepen it. The dam was named for a 3-mile-wide (4.8 km) bend in the Snake River, shaped like an oxbow. A map of the Columbia River watershed with the Snake River highlighted in yellow and the Columbia River highlighted in blue. The drainage basin of the Snake River covers part of six states in the US. The flood waters of Lake Bonneville, approximately twenty times the flow of the Columbia River or 5 million ft3/s (140,000 m3/s), swept down the Snake River and across the entirety of southern Idaho. From its headwaters to the beginning of Hells Canyon, many small dams block the Snake to provide irrigation water. [97] With a channel about 5 feet (1.5 m) deeper than the Mississippi River system, the Columbia and Snake rivers can float barges twice as heavy. In higher elevations, conifer forests, of which ponderosa pine is most common, dominate the landscape. [26][28][29], The massive amounts of sediment deposited by the Lake Bonneville Floods in the Snake River Plain also had a lasting effect on most of the middle Snake River. This mountainous gorge forms the border between Oregon and Idaho, and part of Washington. Lewiston, 140 miles (230 km) from the confluence of the Snake and Columbia and 465 miles (748 km) from the mouth of the Columbia on the Pacific Ocean, became connected with Portland and other Pacific ports via steamboat service from the mouth of the Snake through the Columbia River Gorge. [46] In December 2007, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a permit requiring owners of fish farms along the Snake River to reduce their phosphorus discharge by 40%. One of the oldest and most well-known is called the Marmes Rockshelter, which was used from over 11,000 years ago to relatively recent times. [7] The lowest recorded daily mean flow was 2,700 cu ft/s (76 m3/s) on February 4, 1979. "[69] Their goal was to eventually gain rights over the Oregon Territory, a region covering Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and parts of Montana and Wyoming (most of the present-day region called the Pacific Northwest). Most of the Snake River watershed lies between the Rocky Mountains on the east and the Columbia Plateau on the northwest. Upstream Columbia mileage calculated by subtracting 325 (Snake River confluence mile) from 1243 (the length of the Columbia). Engineers at Whooshh Innovations have developed a fish passage system that allows for the safe and timely transportation of fish over barriers through a flexible tube system via volitional entry into the system. Riparian zones, wetlands and marshes once occurred along the length of the Snake River and its tributaries. Important Note: The availability calendar will open to 2021. The WWF placed the ecoregion boundary about 50 kilometres (31 mi) downriver from Shoshone Falls in order to include the Big Wood River (the main tributary of the Malad River) in the Upper Snake ecoregion, because the Wood River is biologically distinct from the rest of the downriver Snake. There were also villages on the Salmon River, Grande Ronde River, Tucannon River, and the lower Hells Canyon area. This capacity was revised to 20 MW in 1993.[88]. [103], Since the early 20th century, when Swan Falls Dam was constructed on the middle Snake River upstream of Hells Canyon, the fifteen dams and reservoirs on the river have posed an increasing problem for migrating salmon. In the lowermost part of the watershed, in southeastern Washington, the Snake River is surrounded by an area called the Columbia Plateau Ecoprovince, which is now mostly occupied by irrigated farms. Pollutant levels in Hells Canyon upstream of the Salmon River confluence, including that of water temperature, dissolved nutrients, and sediment, are required to meet certain levels. [53], Canadian explorer David Thompson first recorded the Native American name of the Snake River as Shawpatin when he arrived at its mouth by boat in 1800. The high hydraulic conductivity of the mostly-basalt rocks in the plain led to the formation of the Snake River Aquifer, one of the most productive aquifers in North America. Product details. On the south, the Snake watershed borders that of the Humboldt River in Nevada, and the watershed of the Great Salt Lake (the Bear, Jordan and Weber rivers) on the south. The party later traveled north, descended the Lemhi River to the Salmon and attempted to descend it to the Snake, but found it impassable because of its violent rapids. [67] [96], It is found that over 60% of fisherman are in favor of dam removal on the Snake River. Snake River from Mapcarta, the free map. [58][59], On the Snake River in southeastern Washington there are several ancient sites. [62] A smallpox epidemic brought by European explorers and fur trappers was responsible for wiping out much of the Shoshone east of the Rocky Mountains, but the Shoshone continued to occupy the Snake River Plain. Prehistoric Native Americans lived along the Snake starting more than 11,000 years ago. The confluence of the Snake and Columbia rivers at Burbank, Washington is part of Lake Wallula, the reservoir of McNary Dam. [105], A controversy has erupted since the late 20th century over the four lower Snake River dams, with the primary argument being that removing the dams would allow anadromous fish to reach the lower Snake River tributaries—the Clearwater River, the Tucannon River and the Grande Ronde River—and spawn in much higher numbers. It is characterized by large horse-mounted tribes that spent long amounts of time away from their local foraging range hunting bison. There are also up to 118 species of rare or endemic plants that occur in the Snake River watershed. Agricultural lands and their resulting runoff have also had a significant impact on the success rate of migrating fish. [30] The aquifer filled to hold nearly 100,000,000 acre feet (120 km3) of water, underlying about 10,000 square miles (26,000 km2) in a plume 1,300 feet (400 m) thick. [47], The Snake River's average flow is 54,830 cubic feet per second (1,553 m3/s). The Western Cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorous) or water moccasin is one of the venomous snakes residing in north central Texas.Although it does occur in the Dallas and Fort Worth area it is rarely seen by most. [12], The Snake River was once one of the most important rivers for the spawning of anadromous fish—which are hatched in the headwaters of rivers, live in the ocean for most of their lives, and return to the river to spawn—in the United States. In the summer of 2013, more than 13,000 sockeye salmon returned to the spawning grounds. The Snake River likely got its name from the first European explorers who misinterpreted the sign made by the Shoshone people who identified themselves in sign language by moving the hand in a swimming motion which appeared to these explorers to be a \"snake.\" It actually signified that they lived near the river with many fish. In 1998, over 123,000,000 US bushels (4.3×109 l; 980,000,000 US dry gal; 950,000,000 imp gal) of grain were barged on the Snake. 325 miles (523 km) below the Snake confluence comes from river mileage markers on USGS topo maps. Thompson, and Wide West, all of which were built on the Columbia River. Some emigrants chose to ford the Snake and proceed down the west side and recross the river near Fort Boise into Hells Canyon, continue down the drier east side into the gorge, or float the Snake and Columbia to the Willamette River, the destination of the Oregon Trail. [7] The highest flow ever recorded on the Snake River was at a different USGS stream gauge near Clarkston, which operated from 1915 to 1972. The watershed of the Grande Ronde in northeastern Oregon is also largely undeveloped. [8], The river's flow is also measured at several other points in its course. Strike Dam. 1: 160,000]. Salmon were the mainstay of the Nez Perce and most of the other tribes below Shoshone Falls. This mountainous gorge forms the border between Oregon and Idaho, and part of Washington. However, precipitation in the Snake River watershed varies widely. Other products barged on the lower Snake River include peas, lentils, forest products, and petroleum. [50] But at the border of Idaho and Oregon, near Weiser at the beginning of Hells Canyon, the Snake's flow rises to 17,780 cu ft/s (503 m3/s) after receiving several major tributaries such as the Payette, Owyhee and Malheur. Hell's Canyon Dam blocks passage to the entire upper Snake River. Water in the aquifer eventually travels to the west side of the Snake River Plain and re-enters the river as springs. In the 1960s and 1970s the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers built four dams and locks on the lower Snake River to facilitate shipping. Of these, the Clark Fork (via the Pend Oreille River) and the Spokane join the Columbia above the Snake, while the John Day joins downstream of the Snake, in the Columbia River Gorge. However, in the high Rockies of Wyoming, in the upper Jackson Hole area, the average precipitation is over 30 inches (760 mm), and snowfall averages 252 inches (6,400 mm). The Snake River Plain is a prominent depression across southern Idaho extending 640 kilometers (400 miles) in an east-west direction. Gigantic glacial-retreat flooding episodes that occurred during the previous Ice Age carved out canyons, cliffs and waterfalls along the middle and lower Snake River. Aside from water from the river, water is also pulled from the Snake River Aquifer for irrigation. [11][12][14][15], The Snake continues through its canyon, receiving the Malad River from the east near Bliss and then the Bruneau River from the south in C.J. Here the Snake River almost doubles in size as it receives several major tributaries – the Owyhee from the southwest, then the Boise and Payette rivers from the east, and further downstream the Malheur River from the west and Weiser River from the east. Lifestyles along the Snake River varied widely. Scale [ca. Be sure to use the arrows to scroll to 2022. Dams on the Snake can be grouped into three major categories. That depends largely upon the location of your home. Sophistication varied from reed boats pulled by Indians on horse back at Snake Fort, Fort Boise, as described by Narcissa Whitman[74] in 1836 to an electric operated ferry, the Swan Falls Ferry,[75] at Swan Falls Dam of the early 20th century. Below Palisades Dam, the Snake River flows through the Snake River Plain, a vast arid physiographic province extending through southern Idaho southwest of the Rocky Mountains and underlain by the Snake River Aquifer, one of the most productive aquifers in the United States. If you back up to a river or creek, or one is within a mile of your home, the likelihood of seeing a snake or coming upon one is greater than if you live in the middle of your subdivision. Eventually, two large Native American groups controlled most of the Snake River: the Nez Perce, whose territory stretched from the southeastern Columbia Plateau into northern Oregon and western Idaho, and the Shoshone, who occupied the Snake River Plain both above and below Shoshone Falls. At 1,078 miles (1,735 km) long, it is the largest tributary of the Columbia River, in turn the largest North American river that empties into the Pacific Ocean. [103][104] According to legend, the Nez Perce tribe was first founded in the valley of the Clearwater River, one of the Snake River's lowermost major tributaries. [25] Much of the water lost by the Snake River as it transects the plain issues back into the river at its western end, by way of many artesian springs. However, aside from restoring salmon runs, dam removal proponents argue that the power is replaceable, that the grain transportation system could be replaced by railroads, and that only one of the four reservoirs supplies irrigation water. [40], Downriver of Hells Canyon is the Lower Snake River Project, authorized by the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1945 for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to create a navigable channel on the Snake River from its mouth to the beginning of Hells Canyon. One reason is that the river runs through three different states, and is over 1,000 miles (1,600 km) long. Several ships were built specifically to transport ore from there to Lewiston: these included Imnaha, Mountain Gem, and Norma. But each island may have some slightly different rules that apply to public use because of the mix of ownership and location that affect jurisdictional issues. Find local businesses, view maps and get driving directions in Google Maps. This area has a group of three islands (hence the name) that splits the Snake into four channels each about 200 feet (61 m) wide. About 14,500 years ago, pluvial Lake Bonneville in the Great Salt Lake area, formed in the last glacial period, spilled catastrophically down the Portneuf River into the Snake in an event known as the Bonneville flood. The Snake River also shares a boundary with the Green River to the southeast; the Green River drains parts of Wyoming and Utah and is the largest tributary of the Colorado River. Check flight prices and hotel availability for your visit. Irrigation pumps for fields in southeastern Washington would also have to reach further to access the water of the Snake River. Between 1985 and 2007, only an average of 18 sockeye salmon returned to Idaho each year. [3] Eventually, the name Snake River was derived from an S-shaped gesture the Shoshone tribe made with their hands to represent swimming salmon. [45] Throughout much of the Snake River Plain and Hells Canyon, excessive sediment is also a recurring problem. At Twin Falls, in the center of the Snake River Plain, the climate is nearly desert, with an annual rainfall of just 9.24 inches (235 mm), although the average snowfall is 13.1 inches (330 mm). One crossing the trail made over the Snake River was near the present-day site of Glenns Ferry. At its height, there were at least 27 Nez Perce settlements along the Clearwater River and 11 more on the Snake between the mouth of the Clearwater and Imnaha Rivers. River And Lake Maps of the USA ( 47 ; River Basin Map Of the USA ( 9 ; River Maps of the USA ( 82 ; Roadway Maps Of The USA ( 21 ; Seaway Maps Of The USA ( 12 ; Snake River map of the USA ( 1 ; State borderline river and lake map of the USA ( 10 ; States Boundary Maps of the USA ( 69 ; States Maps Of The USA ( 81 ; Temperature maps of The USA ( 26 Between here and Hells Canyon, the first dam on the Snake, Swan Falls Dam, was built in 1901. The four reservoirs formed by the lower Snake River dams—Lake Sacagawea, Lake Herbert G. West, Lake Bryan, and Lower Granite Lake—have also formed problems, as the downstream current in the pools is often not enough for the fish to sense, confusing their migration routes. Includes boat access points, campgrounds, and great views of the roads available. The Snake River's annual salmon run, which was estimated at that time to exceed four million in good years, supported the Nez Perce, who lived in permanent, well-defined villages, unlike the nomadic southeastern tribes along the Snake River. Jackson Lake Dam, far upstream in Wyoming's Grand Teton National Park, was built in 1907 to raise Jackson Lake for providing additional water storage in dry years. [11][12][13][14][15], Southwest of Rexburg, Idaho, the Snake is joined from the north by Henrys Fork. The expedition named the Snake River the Lewis River, Lewis's River, or Lewis Fork, in his honor, and they traveled northwards to the Lochsa River, which they traveled via the Clearwater River into the lower Snake, and into the Columbia. Irrigation dams include American Falls Dam, Minidoka Dam, and C.J. After the first irrigation dams on the river began operation in the first decade of the 20th century, much of the arable land in a strip a few miles wide along the Snake River was cultivated or turned to pasture, and agricultural return flows began to pollute the Snake. [81] The Oregon Steam Navigation Company launched the Shoshone at Fort Boise in 1866 which provided passenger and freight service on the upper Snake for the Boise and Owyhee mines. During low water, algae blooms occur throughout the calm stretches of the river, depleting its oxygen supply. After destroying the dam, salmon populations noticeably recovered. View detailed information and reviews for 1846 Snake River Rd, ste b in Katy, Texas and get driving directions with road conditions and live traffic updates along the way. Salmon swimming upstream in this river are faced with predators and dams. [38] This desert climate occupies the majority of the basin of the Snake River, so although it is longer than the Columbia River above the Tri-Cities, its discharge is on average significantly less. Search; Images; Maps; Play; YouTube; News; Gmail; Drive; More. Hells Canyon Map - Snake River. However, these dams blocked salmon migration above Hells Canyon and have led to water quality and environmental issues in certain parts of the river. Because of deforestation, up to one quarter of the forests have been taken over by sagebrush, leaving the remaining forests to cover about 15% of the watershed. One such trading center in the Weiser area existed as early as 4,500 years ago. The Portneuf River Valley is an overflow channel that in the last glacial period carried floodwaters from pluvial Lake Bonneville into the Snake River, significantly altering the landscape of the Snake River Plain through massive erosion. An even larger peak discharge, estimated at 409,000 cu ft/s (11,600 m3/s), occurred during the flood of June 1894. As recently as 165 million years ago, most of western North America was still part of the Pacific Ocean. [18][105], At the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers, young salmon that swim down from spawning gravels in the headwaters of the Clearwater River often delay their migrations because of a significant temperature difference. The three dams of the project, Brownlee Dam, Oxbow Dam and Hells Canyon Dam, are located in upper Hells Canyon. [65][66] The name "Lewis Fork", however, did not last.[64]. Many of the rivers that flow into the Snake River Plain from the north sink into the Snake River Aquifer, but still contribute their water to the river. It is arc shaped with the concave side to the north. Another possible upstream passage solution is the Whooshh Fish Transport System. The largest tributary of the Columbia River, the Snake River watershed makes up about 41% of the entire Columbia River Basin. Detailed map of the South Fork of the Snake River (in idaho). [9] The Snake River rises in western Wyoming, then flows through the Snake River Plain of southern Idaho, the rugged Hells Canyon on the Oregon–Idaho border and the rolling Palouse Hills of Washington, emptying into the Columbia River at the Tri-Cities, Washington. The Snake River Plain was created by a volcanic hotspot which now lies underneath the Snake River headwaters in Yellowstone National Park. The Wood River sculpin (Cottus leiopomus) is endemic to the Wood River. Later American explorers, some of whom were originally part of the Lewis and Clark expedition, journeyed into the Snake River watershed and records show a variety of names have been associated with the river. [54] By Jerry Deal - Idaho Department of Fish and Game The islands of the Snake River between Swan Falls Dam and Brownlee Reservoir provide some excellent wildlife habitat and associated hunting opportunity. The lower Columbia River has likewise been dammed for navigation. These two forks of the Snake River come together at the base of the Menan Buttes. Barging on the Snake River is a big part of that. [42]